Situation ethics also permits us to do evil to achieve good. Another strand of utilitarian thought took the form of a theological ethics.
Hutcheson was committed to maximization, it seems. Mill also argued that the principle could be proven, using another rather notorious argument: But, for the most part, the consideration of what would happen if everyone did the same, is the only means we have of discovering the tendency of the act in the particular case.
Mill says that good actions lead to pleasure and define good character. Commonsense morality gives us good rules of thumb, but they are subordinate to the Greatest Happiness Principle. Secondary Literature Crisp, Roger, A fourth problem with utilitarianism is that consequences themselves must be judged.
Would it be morally acceptable to pay people to fight to the death? It involves our saying that, even if the total quantity of pleasure in each was exactly equal, yet the fact that all the beings in the one possessed in addition knowledge of many different kinds and a full appreciation of all that was beautiful or worthy of love in their world, whereas none of the beings in the other possessed any of these things, would give us no reason whatever for preferring the former to the latter.
Smart as the title to his reply to Popper  in which he argued that the principle would entail seeking the quickest and least painful method of killing the entirety of humanity. What Utilitarianism Is Part 2 Summary Having responded to the objection that utilitarianism glorifies base pleasures, Mill spends the rest of this chapter presenting and responding to other criticisms of utilitarianism.
I now had opinions: Even in limiting the recognition of intrinsic value and disvalue to happiness and unhappiness, some philosophers have argued that those feelings cannot adequately be further broken down into terms of pleasure and pain and have thus preferred to defend the theory in terms of maximizing happiness and minimizing unhappiness.
From one viewpoint, utilitarians ask the significance of side-effects in figuring the adjust of utility between acting and refraining, when side-effects are incorporated, the abhorrent action will be said to have less utility than at first appearance, and may have less utility than the option result.
A further criticism of the Utilitarian formula "Maximize pleasure" is that it assumes a continuous pleasure-pain scale that lets us treat degrees of pain as negative degrees of pleasure. Hutcheson, in An Inquiry Concerning Moral Good and Evil, fairly explicitly spelled out a utilitarian principle of action choice.
In like manner, I apprehend, the sole evidence it is possible to produce that anything is desirable is that people do actually desire it. Hume was heavily influenced by Hutcheson, who was one of his teachers.
For example, Gay was curious about how to explain our practice of approbation and disapprobation of action and character. The rationale for all the rights he recognizes is utilitarian.
The circumstances from which this antipathy may have taken its rise may be worth enquiring to…. Thus, Moore differed from Sidgwick who regarded the good as consisting in some consciousness. A moralist, he maintained, could sum up the units of pleasure and the units of pain for everyone likely to be affected, immediately and in the future, and could take the balance as a measure of the overall good or evil tendency of an action.First, utilitarianism is often called a godless doctrine, because its moral foundation is the human happiness, and not the will of God.
Mill replies that the criticism depends on what we see to be the moral character of God; for if God desires the happiness of all His creatures, then utilitarianism is more religious than any other doctrine. The moral impulse of utilitarianism is constant, but our decisions under it are contingent on our knowledge and scientific understanding."  From the beginning, utilitarianism has recognized that certainty in such matters is unobtainable and both Bentham and Mill said that it was necessary to rely on the tendencies of actions to bring about.
If you answered yes, you were probably using a form of moral reasoning called "utilitarianism." Stripped down to its essentials, utilitarianism is a moral principle that holds that the morally right course of action in any situation is the one that produces the greatest balance of benefits over.
A summary of Chapter 2: What Utilitarianism Is (Part 2) in John Stuart Mill's Utilitarianism. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Utilitarianism and what it means.
Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans. Like other forms of consequentialism, its core idea is that whether actions are morally right or wrong depends on their effects.
More specifically, the only effects of actions that are relevant are the good and bad results that they produce. Understanding Utilitarianism. Acumen, This is a very clear description of utilitarianism.
Utilitarianism John Stuart Mill the bad effects of this de- the understanding and appreciation of the Utilitarian or Happiness theory, and towards such proof as it can be given.
Obviously this can’t be ‘proof’ in the ordinary and popular meaning of that word. Questions about ultimate ends can’t.Download