Much of the rest of the chapter addresses why this happens. Exposure to high levels of ambient air pollution may contribute to this disparity [ 6162 ]. Lung development begins in utero but continues throughout childhood in a tightly regulated process. Although fewer studies have examined the association between air pollution and other lung diseases, exposure to elevated concentrations of particulate matter and ozone are associated with an increased risk of exacerbations and reduced lung function in individuals with cystic fibrosis [ 66 ].
Adverse effects of air pollution on children There are several lines of evidence suggesting that the health consequences of air pollution are not distributed equally among the population.
In addition, you pollute the air, contributing to public health problems. You care only about the extra cost to you. If you tried to drive on the wrong day, you might have to pay a large fine, so the payoff to driving changed.
Private Benefits and Social Costs When people face a social dilemma, the actions that are the best for all individuals lead to an outcome that is bad for everyone.
What matters is how these different possibilities compare with the status quo, where you and everyone else drive. The recent EPA recommendation to strengthen ozone standards was based on these and other valid concerns from the scientific community, and supported by the research cited in this manuscript.
Exactly the same principles still apply. Solid waste disposal open burning and incinerationstationary fuel combustion heating and power generationand industrial processes.
In a large study of predominantly African- and Hispanic-American children with asthma living in seven urban low-income areas, higher five-day averages of nitrogen dioxide and PM2. Two decades ago the Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey established an association between chronic exposure to air pollution and reduced pulmonary function [ 544 ].
Between andaggregate emissions of common air pollutants dropped 68 percent, while the U. It is likely to amount to much less than the total cost of the machine if the government makes clear its intention to enforce the fines for burning, and provides enough publicity, because then there will be high demand for the machines.
The difference between the purchase price and auction price of each machine will be the government subsidy. This needs to be combined with a public information campaign and an intensification of extension efforts. Driving also brings private costs, such as the costs of gasoline and maintenance of your vehicle.
The wear and tear you impose on the roads is minimal. Would this change the basic message of this example? Conversely, children who moved from lower to higher PM10 exposure areas had worsening lung function [ 48 ].
According to data from U. It can then auction the machines to farmers and hire-purchase operators who buy machines and rent their services to farmers.
If you drive one extra mile, does that really have any appreciable cost on society? In a communitybased prospective study of pregnant women living in four residential areas of Beijing, China, which included more than 74, live births with a gestational age of at least 37 weeks, maternal exposure to increased concentrations of sulfur dioxide or particulate matter was associated with increased risk of low birth weight after adjustment for gestational age, maternal age, infant sex, and residence [ 36 ].
The extra emissions from your driving obviously have a tiny effect on pollution and greenhouse gases. Long-term ozone exposure during childhood was associated with reduced FEV1 in late adolescence [ 51 ].
The second, more subtle, answer is that though your individual influence on air and road quality is very small, you are affecting a very large number of people. To avoid the bad outcome of the social dilemma, we must find some way of changing the payoffs of the game.
Reduced lung function in infancy predicts low lung function later in life [ 35 ], suggesting that early influences on respiratory health have lasting impact.Keeping the air of the capital clean is a political priority.
Chinese leaders have been embarrassed by the damage caused to China’s international image by the city’s relentlessly grey skies. The Economics Of The Clean Air Act Essay; The Economics Of The Clean Air Act Essay.
Words 6 Pages "The health effects of air pollution imperil human lives. This fact is well-documented."-- Eddie Bernice Johnson Air is a part of all of our lives.
Without clean air, nothing we know of can exist. The debate over clean air, it's regulations.
In the language of economics, the nonsmoker owns the property rights An individual’s (or institution’s) legal right to make all decisions regarding the use of a particular resource.
to the clean air in the office. Property rights over a resource mean that, by law, the owner can make all decisions regarding the use of the resource. Regulations addressing environmental problems such as air pollution might be dismissed as a luxury for rich countries that can afford it, but members of the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) insist that such measures actually represent the most effective means of lifting countries out of poverty.
Nov 22, · The simple economics of clean air Somanathan is professor of economics and program director of the Centre for Research on the Economics of Climate, Food, Energy, and Environment, Indian Statistical Institute. Gupta is assistant professor of economics, IISER, mi-centre.com: E.
Somanathan,Ridhima Gupta. The Clean Air Act protects many Americans from pollution-related health problems and premature death, and improves the health and productivity of the U.S.