Change from stronger to weaker meaning, e. Change based on similarity of thing. In some cases we have a complex similarity. Typology by Bloomfield [ edit ] The most widely accepted scheme in the English-speaking academic world is from Bloomfield Semantic change due to the differentiation of synonyms is a gradual change observed in the course of language history, sometimes, but not necessarily, involving the semantic assimilation of loan words.
Later on the component of carriages was dropped and the noun train changed its meaning.
Causes of semantic changes can be linguistic. Semantic change based on the similarity of names, e. Used originally as a shortening for "full of awe", in contemporary usage the word usually has negative meaning.
Change based on whole-part relation. They are observed in changes of meaning resulting from the development of the notion expressed and the thing named and by the appearance of new notions and things. Let us take, for example, the word land.
Change based on a contrastive aspect of the concepts, e. The tendency to use technical imagery is increasing in every language, thus the expression to spark off in chain reaction is almost international. Change based on nearness in space or time, e. Demagogue — Originally meant "a popular leader".
Primarily pen comes back to the Latin word penna a feather of the bird. Metaphor can be based on different types of similaruty: Many metaphors are based on parts of a human body: For example, economic causes are obviously at work in the semantic development of the word fee.
You drink it straight. Typology by Blank [ edit ] However, the categorization of Blank has gained increasing acceptance: Both factors are at work in the case of token.
Egregious — Originally described something that was remarkably good. ME fee-house is both a cattle-shed and a treasury.
This process is reflected in the development of lexical meaning. And it often happens that new meanings are thus acquired by old words. Upward shift in a taxonomy, e. Now it means something that is remarkably bad or flagrant. Some expressions tend to become somewhat obsolete: There are different types of metonymy: George Chauncey, in his book Gay New Yorkwould put this shift as early as the late 19th century among a certain "in crowd" knowledgeable of gay night life.
This classification is based on the logical principle. Change from weaker to stronger meaning, e. Oxford — a university town in England which was built near the place where oxen could ford the river.
And yet a thorough understanding of the phenomena involved. When the French words time, season, hour temps, saison, heur were borrowed into English they ousted the word tide in these meanings.
It changes with the progress of human consciousness. Change based on similarity between concepts, e. Extralinguistic causes of semantic change Causes of semantic change The factors accounting for semantic changes may be subdivided into two main groups: The history of the social, economic and political life of people, the progress of culture and science bring about changes in notions and things influencing the semantic aspect of language.
Gay — Originally meant 13th century "lighthearted", "joyous" or 14th century "bright and showy", it also came to mean "happy"; it acquired connotations of immorality as early aseither sexual e.In semantics and historical linguistics, semantic change refers to any change in the meaning(s) of a word over the course of time.
Semantic change (also semantic shift, semantic progression, semantic development, or semantic drift) is the evolution of word usage—usually to the point that the modern meaning is radically different from the original usage. In diachronic (or historical) linguistics, semantic change is a change in one of the meanings of a word.
The causes of semantic changes can be extra-linguistic and linguistic. For exemple: the change of the lexical meaning of the noun pen was due to extra-linguistic causes.
Primarily pen comes back to the Latin word penna (a feather of the bird). "Introduction to the History of English" Semantic change Which semantic changes took place in these words? CGmc. *wambo 'stomach' ModHG Wampe ModE womb 2 Reasons for change Linguistic Grammaticalisation (see above) Borrowing (can affect other words in the same semantic.
The changes of notions and things named go hand in hand. As they are conditioned by changes in the economic, social, political and cultu ral history of the people, the extralinguistic causes of semantic change might be conveniently subdivided in.
The causes of semantic changes In comparison with classifications of semantic change the problem of their causes appears neglected. Opinions on this point are scattered through a great number of linguistic works and have apparently never -been collected into anything complete.Download